Half a litre of beer or glass of wine could make it unsafe to drive – study

One alcoholic drink could be enough to make it unsafe for someone to drive, scientists have warned.

Although there is no standard amount of alcohol someone can drink to stay within the legal limit, some may think they can get away with one glass of wine or a beer.

But a study suggests just one tipple is enough to ‘significantly compromise’ a person’s feeling of control by altering their brain function.

Scientists said even one is too many and the law should be reformed to mean people driving with any alcohol in their blood should be punished. Researchers at the University of Sussex did their study by comparing a person’s sense of agency before and after they’d had a drink.

The sense of agency is the feeling of being in control of our actions and understanding what the consequences are and when they will happen.

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For example, when a person is driving a car, they are aware they are the agent producing a consequence, such as when they turn the wheel, the car will turn.

Measuring sense of agency is difficult, said the lead author Dr Silvana De Pirro, because it’s not possible to rely on self-reporting of how in control they feel because they might be bias. Researchers relied on another measure called ‘intentional binding’, which refers to a person’s judgement of time and actions. It is believed to be produced by the same mechanisms in the brain as their sense of agency.

Researchers found that when people had a small drink their perception of the time between an action and its consequence got shorter.

They did not say whether people were likely to make decisions too soon or too late, or to make the wrong ones, but that the rising sense of agency could make them overconfident when driving and more likely to make dangerous decisions.

Dr Pirro said: ‘Our study presents a compelling case that even one pint of beer is enough to significantly compromise a person’s sense of agency.

‘This has important implications for legal and social responsibility of drivers, and begs the question: are current alcohol limits for driving truly safe?’

Professor Aldo Badiani, Director of the Sussex Addiction Research and Intervention Centre (SARIC), said: ‘It’s important to note that in our experiments, all the participants stayed within the legal alcohol limit for driving in England, Wales, the US and Canada.

‘And yet we still saw an impairment in their feeling of being in control.

‘In England, Wales and North America, the argument to lower the limit has much momentum. The results of our study support the implementation of such a change in the law.’

The study included a total of 59 participants who drank a cocktail that had doses of alcohol adapted to their body weight to make sure they were within the legal driving limits in England and Wales.

They were asked to look at a blank clock face which had a red dot going round every two seconds.

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The researchers told them to press a key, and then asked them, ‘Where was the red dot when you pressed the key?’.

In another test, they were asked to press a key, which was followed by a sound, and then asked, ‘Where was the red dot when you pressed the key, and where was the red dot when you heard the sound?’

After a drink, they judged actions as occurring later than they had, and the sound occurring earlier than it had, ‘binding’ the two together – referring to an increase in the phenomenon ‘intentional binding’.

Professor Aldo Badiani, senior study author, said: ‘The participants glued the two things together.

‘In the case of someone who is drunk, the binding is further increased. So this might indicate that your sense of agency is increased which means you think you are controlling the external environment.’

Until now, research has mostly focused on the loss of control produced by obvious drunkenness, characterised by slow reactions, aggression or risky behaviour.

The legal limit for driving in England and Wales is currently 80mg/100ml of blood, and 50mg/100ml in Scotland and most European countries.

There is no fool-proof way of drinking and staying under the drink drive limit, and guidelines do not state how many drinks are within the limit.

This is because it varies dramatically from person to person, depending on age, weight and what they have eaten that day, for example.

Since 1982, death from drink driving has decreased by 48 per cent in the UK.

For every 100,000 Americans under the age of 21, 1.2 people were killed in drunk driving fatalities in 2017, a reduction of 29 per cent in the past decade.

The research was published in the journal Addiction Biology.

Daily Mail

Habits you should avoid when going to a club

When you gong to a club there are some habits that you should avoid to have a good time. They include;

Tokeo la picha la club

Mixing drinks

Mixing drinks can really put your liver at risk. It can lead to vomiting as it may tamper with your digestion system. It is advisable to take such drinks in dilute form with either water or a soft drink.

Tips: 10 things to do to wake up early without struggling

Leaving your items unattended

You should be careful with your items especially your phone and cash. Not everyone goes to the club with good intentions. Other go with intentions of stealing from the drunk people, so more reason you should be careful.

Wearing high heels

If you love dancing, wear comfortable shoes. Six inch heels are cute to look at, but you won’t be able to dance.You could even fall and break your ankles if drunk.

Picha inayohusiana

Taking stranger’s drinks

Taking someone’s drink that you don’t know is to dangerous. Someone can either poison you or even drug you so as they can harm you or even steal from you.

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Taking too much alcohol

We are constantly told that too much consumption of alcohol is harmful to ones health. When in the club, it’s important to limit how much you drink, plus also know the limits because of your health and your security too. If you get too drunk chances are that you may black out and in the process people can take advantage of you.

Read more:

It is NEVER safe to drink alcohol while pregnant – study shows

Babies whose mothers drank alcohol during their pregnancies – even as early as at conception – are at greater risk of being born with low birth weights, a new study suggests.

The new research, from scientists in at the University of Oxford and the University of Queensland found that alcohol blocks the development of all-important blood vessels in the placenta in rats.

And these effects become apparent from the very earliest stages of pregnancy.

They also discovered that the female animals were much more dramatically affected by alcohol exposure, which was linked to 17 percent lower birth weights and 32 percent less blood vessel development in the placenta.
A developing fetus is sensitive to every change in the mother’s body, and vital statistics like birth weight can have lifelong consequences.

Babies are considered to have a low birth weight if they are under eight lbs and five ounces.

Being small at birth puts a child at greater risk of breathing disorders, brain bleeds, heart defects, eye diseases, infection and an under-developed liver early in life.

As they grow into adolescence and adulthood, these children are more likely to develop life-threatening conditions like diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure.

They are also at higher risk of obesity and intellectual disabilities.

Among the most common causes of low birth weight – aside from premature birth – is fetal growth restriction (FGR).

FGR simply means that a developing fetus doesn’t gain enough weight in the womb.Genetic factors – like parental size – can keep the baby from gaining this weight, but so can lifestyle factors, like drinking, smoking and using drugs.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urges that there is no safe amount of alcohol to drink at any time during pregnancy – including before a woman knows she is pregnant.

While the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) echoes this advice, it also reassures women that ‘serious harm from this kind of [alcohol] use is unlikely.

‘The important thing is not to drink any alcohol for the rest of the pregnancy.’

But the new study, published in the journal Development, suggests that there may be risks to even the earliest sips of wine, beer or booze.

Scientists at the University of Queensland and the University of Oxford studied female rats beginning four days before their eggs were fertilized.

They continued to monitor the animals and the development of their embryos until after the babies were born, and considered ‘early pregnancy’ to span to four days after fertilization.

Even alcohol exposure in these earliest days of the animals’ pregnancies had clear and damaging effects on their fetuses.

In the earliest days of pregnancy, the placenta is developing around the fetus.

Proper development of the organ and its vasculature is critical to the fetus because this system of blood vessels will deliver nutrients and oxygen from mother to baby.

But in the rats, the scientists saw that even alcohol exposure in the earliest days of pregnancy cut the growth of blood vessels in the placenta.

For unclear reasons, the effects of this shortcoming were felt much more by female fetuses, whose placentas showed a 32 percent reduction in blood vessel growth, and whose birth weights were an average of 17 percent lower.

‘This has implications for human health by helping to explain, in part, why babies exposed to alcohol in the womb are often born small,’ said study co-author Dr Jacinta Kalisch-Smith, a placental researcher at the University of Oxford.

‘The next part of this project is to see whether nutrient supplementation can reduce or even prevent the adverse effects of alcohol exposure.’

Daily Mail

Habari gani hii! Alcohol causes cancer by permanently damaging cells and DNA!

I love alcohol. I enjoy imbibing this precious resource that our government takes great pleasure in taxing heavily. This is an article I would rather not write, but write I must as yours truly cares about the health of our readership. I know, najaribu kuwaharibia Friday, lakini lazima ukweli usemwe! It is with great sadness that I announce the results of a study done by British scientists.
When i'm sad meme
When i’m sad meme. photo credit: jokideo
Drinking alcohol produces a harmful chemical in the body which can lead to permanent genetic damage in the DNA of stem cells, increasing the risk of cancer developing, according to research published on Wednesday. Working with mice in a laboratory, British scientists used chromosome analysis and DNA sequencing to examine the genetic damage caused by acetaldehyde, a harmful chemical produced when the body processes it.
Alcohol
Alcohol. photo credit: KDXU
Their findings offered more detail about how alcohol increases the risk of developing 7 types of cancer, including common forms such as breast and bowel cancer. It also showed how the body seeks to defend against the damage alcohol can do. Ketan Patel, a professor at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, who co-led the study wrote:
“Some cancers develop due to DNA damage in stem cells. While some damage occurs by chance, our findings suggest that drinking alcohol can increase the risk of this damage.”
The researchers also looked at how the body tries to protect itself against damage caused by alcohol. The first line of defense is a group of enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases or ALDHs, Patel explained. These break down the acetaldehyde into acetate, which cells can then use as a source of energy.
Cancer cells
Cancer cells. photo credit: Ask a Biologist – Arizona State University
In the study, when mice lacking a critical ALDH enzyme were given alcohol, their DNA suffered four times as damage compared with mice with a properly functioning version of the enzyme. Patel said cells also have a second line of defense in the form of a range of DNA repair systems which, most of the time, allow them to fix and reverse different types of DNA damage.
There you have it people. Pombe bado mtakunywa ama?